Difference Between Blockchain And Traditional Database ...

Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

How to Create Your Own Cryptocurrency Using Python 2020

A blockchain is a public database that irreversibly documents and authenticates the possession and transmission of digital assets. Digital currencies, like Bitcoin and Ethereum, are based on this concept. Blockchain is an exciting technology that you can use to transform the capabilities of your applications.
Of late, we’ve been seeing governments, organizations, and individuals using the blockchain technology to create their own cryptocurrencies—and avoid being left behind. Notably, when Facebook proposed its own cryptocurrency, called Libra, the announcement stirred many waters across the world.

What if you could also follow suit and create your own version of a cryptocurrency?

I thought about this and decided to develop an algorithm that creates a crypto.
I decided to call the cryptocurrency fccCoin.
In this tutorial, I’m going to illustrate the step-by-step process I used to build the digital currency (I used the object-oriented concepts of the Python programming language).
Here is the basic blueprint of the blockchain algorithm for creating the fccCoin:
class Block: def __init__(): #first block class pass def calculate_hash(): #calculates the cryptographic hash of every block class BlockChain: def __init__(self): # constructor method pass def construct_genesis(self): # constructs the initial block pass def construct_block(self, proof_no, prev_hash): # constructs a new block and adds it to the chain pass u/staticmethod def check_validity(): # checks whether the blockchain is valid pass def new_data(self, sender, recipient, quantity): # adds a new transaction to the data of the transactions pass u/staticmethod def construct_proof_of_work(prev_proof): # protects the blockchain from attack pass u/property def last_block(self): # returns the last block in the chain return self.chain[-1]
Now, let me explain what is taking place…
1. Building the first Block class A blockchain comprises of several blocks that are joined to each other (that sounds familiar, right?).
The chaining of blocks takes place such that if one block is tampered with, the rest of the chain becomes invalid.
In applying the above concept, I created the following initial block class
import hashlib import time class Block: def __init__(self, index, proof_no, prev_hash, data, timestamp=None): self.index = index self.proof_no = proof_no self.prev_hash = prev_hash self.data = data self.timestamp = timestamp or time.time() u/property def calculate_hash(self): block_of_string = “{}{}{}{}{}”.format(self.index, self.proof_no, self.prev_hash, self.data, self.timestamp) return hashlib.sha256(block_of_string.encode()).hexdigest() def __repr__(self): return “{} – {} – {} – {} – {}”.format(self.index, self.proof_no, self.prev_hash, self.data, self.timestamp)
As you can see from the code above, I defined the __init__() function, which will be executed when the Block class is being initiated, just like in any other Python class.
I provided the following parameters to the initiation function:
self—this refers to the instance of the Block class, making it possible to access the methods and attributes associated with the class; index—this keeps track of the position of the block within the blockchain; proof_no—this is the number produced during the creation of a new block (called mining); prev_hash—this refers to the hash of the previous block within the chain; data—this gives a record of all transactions completed, such as the quantity bought; timestamp—this places a timestamp for the transactions. The second method in the class, calculate_hash, will generate the hash of the blocks using the above values. The SHA-256 module is imported into the project to assist in obtaining the hashes of the blocks.
After the values have been inputted into the cryptographic hash algorithm, the function will return a 256-bit string representing the contents of the block.
This is how security is achieved in blockchains—every block will have a hash and that hash will rely on the hash of the previous block.
As such, if someone tries to compromise any block in the chain, the other blocks will have invalid hashes, leading to disruption of the entire blockchain network.
Ultimately, a block will look like this:
{ “index”: 2, “proof”: 21, “prev_hash”: “6e27587e8a27d6fe376d4fd9b4edc96c8890346579e5cbf558252b24a8257823”, “transactions”: [ {‘sender’: ‘0’, ‘recipient’: ‘Quincy Larson’, ‘quantity’: 1} ], “timestamp”: 1521646442.4096143 }
2. Building the Blockchain class The main idea of a blockchain, just as the name implies, involves “chaining” several blocks to one another.
Therefore, I’m going to construct a Blockchain class that will be useful in managing the workings of the whole chain. This is where most of the action is going to take place.
The Blockchain class will have various helper methods for completing various tasks in the blockchain.
Let me explain the role of each of the methods in the class.
a. Constructor method This method ensures the blockchain is instantiated.
class BlockChain: def __init__(self): self.chain = [] self.current_data = [] self.nodes = set() self.construct_genesis()
Here are the roles of its attributes:
b. Constructing the genesis block The blockchain requires a construct_genesis method to build the initial block in the chain. In the blockchain convention, this block is special because it symbolizes the start of the blockchain.
In this case, let’s construct it by simply passing some default values to the construct_block method.
I gave both proof_no and prev_hash a value of zero, although you can provide any value you want.
def construct_genesis(self): self.construct_block(proof_no=0, prev_hash=0) def construct_block(self, proof_no, prev_hash): block = Block( index=len(self.chain), proof_no=proof_no, prev_hash=prev_hash, data=self.current_data) self.current_data = [] self.chain.append(block) return block
c. Constructing new blocks
The construct_block method is used for creating new blocks in the blockchain.
Here is what is taking place with the various attributes of this method:
d. Checking validity
The check_validity method is important in assessing the integrity of the blockchain and ensuring anomalies are absent.
As mentioned earlier, hashes are essential for the security of the blockchain as even the slightest change in the object will lead to the generation of a completely new hash.
Therefore, this check_validity method uses if statements to check whether the hash of every block is correct.
It also verifies if every block points to the right previous block, through comparing the value of their hashes. If everything is correct, it returns true; otherwise, it returns false.
u/staticmethod def check_validity(block, prev_block): if prev_block.index + 1 != block.index: return False elif prev_block.calculate_hash != block.prev_hash: return False elif not BlockChain.verifying_proof(block.proof_no, prev_block.proof_no): return False elif block.timestamp <= prev_block.timestamp: return False return True
e. Adding data of transactions
The new_data method is used for adding the data of transactions to a block. It’s a very simple method: it accepts three parameters (sender’s details, receiver’s details, and quantity) and append the transaction data to self.current_data list.
Anytime a new block is created, this list is allocated to that block and reset once more as explained in the construct_block method.
Once the transaction data has been added to the list, the index of the next block to be created is returned.
This index is calculated by adding 1 to the index of the current block (which is the last in the blockchain). The data will assist a user in submitting the transaction in future.
def new_data(self, sender, recipient, quantity): self.current_data.append({ ‘sender’: sender, ‘recipient’: recipient, ‘quantity’: quantity }) return True
f. Adding proof of work
Proof of work is a concept that prevents the blockchain from abuse. Simply, its objective is to identify a number that solves a problem after a certain amount of computing work is done.
If the difficulty level of identifying the number is high, it discourages spamming and tampering with the blockchain.
In this case, we’ll use a simple algorithm that discourages people from mining blocks or creating blocks easily.
u/staticmethod def proof_of_work(last_proof): ”’this simple algorithm identifies a number f’ such that hash(ff’) contain 4 leading zeroes f is the previous f’ f’ is the new proof ”’ proof_no = 0 while BlockChain.verifying_proof(proof_no, last_proof) is False: proof_no += 1 return proof_no u/staticmethod def verifying_proof(last_proof, proof): #verifying the proof: does hash(last_proof, proof) contain 4 leading zeroes? guess = f'{last_proof}{proof}’.encode() guess_hash = hashlib.sha256(guess).hexdigest() return guess_hash[:4] == “0000”
g. Getting the last block
Lastly, the latest_block method is a helper method that assists in obtaining the last block in the blockchain. Remember that the last block is actually the current block in the chain.
u/property def latest_block(self): return self.chain[-1]
Let’s sum everything together
Here is the entire code for creating the fccCoin cryptocurrency.
You can also get the code on this GitHub repository.
import hashlib import time class Block: def __init__(self, index, proof_no, prev_hash, data, timestamp=None): self.index = index self.proof_no = proof_no self.prev_hash = prev_hash self.data = data self.timestamp = timestamp or time.time() u/property def calculate_hash(self): block_of_string = “{}{}{}{}{}”.format(self.index, self.proof_no, self.prev_hash, self.data, self.timestamp) return hashlib.sha256(block_of_string.encode()).hexdigest() def __repr__(self): return “{} – {} – {} – {} – {}”.format(self.index, self.proof_no, self.prev_hash, self.data, self.timestamp) class BlockChain: def __init__(self): self.chain = [] self.current_data = [] self.nodes = set() self.construct_genesis() def construct_genesis(self): self.construct_block(proof_no=0, prev_hash=0) def construct_block(self, proof_no, prev_hash): block = Block( index=len(self.chain), proof_no=proof_no, prev_hash=prev_hash, data=self.current_data) self.current_data = [] self.chain.append(block) return block u/staticmethod def check_validity(block, prev_block): if prev_block.index + 1 != block.index: return False elif prev_block.calculate_hash != block.prev_hash: return False elif not BlockChain.verifying_proof(block.proof_no, prev_block.proof_no): return False elif block.timestamp <= prev_block.timestamp: return False return True def new_data(self, sender, recipient, quantity): self.current_data.append({ ‘sender’: sender, ‘recipient’: recipient, ‘quantity’: quantity }) return True u/staticmethod def proof_of_work(last_proof): ”’this simple algorithm identifies a number f’ such that hash(ff’) contain 4 leading zeroes f is the previous f’ f’ is the new proof ”’ proof_no = 0 while BlockChain.verifying_proof(proof_no, last_proof) is False: proof_no += 1 return proof_no u/staticmethod def verifying_proof(last_proof, proof): #verifying the proof: does hash(last_proof, proof) contain 4 leading zeroes? guess = f'{last_proof}{proof}’.encode() guess_hash = hashlib.sha256(guess).hexdigest() return guess_hash[:4] == “0000” u/property def latest_block(self): return self.chain[-1] def block_mining(self, details_miner): self.new_data( sender=”0″, #it implies that this node has created a new block receiver=details_miner, quantity= 1, #creating a new block (or identifying the proof number) is awarded with 1 ) last_block = self.latest_block last_proof_no = last_block.proof_no proof_no = self.proof_of_work(last_proof_no) last_hash = last_block.calculate_hash block = self.construct_block(proof_no, last_hash) return vars(block) def create_node(self, address): self.nodes.add(address) return True u/staticmethod def obtain_block_object(block_data): #obtains block object from the block data return Block( block_data[‘index’], block_data[‘proof_no’], block_data[‘prev_hash’], block_data[‘data’], timestamp=block_data[‘timestamp’])
Now, let’s test our code to see if it works.
blockchain = BlockChain() print(“***Mining fccCoin about to start***”) print(blockchain.chain) last_block = blockchain.latest_block last_proof_no = last_block.proof_no proof_no = blockchain.proof_of_work(last_proof_no) blockchain.new_data( sender=”0″, #it implies that this node has created a new block recipient=”Quincy Larson”, #let’s send Quincy some coins! quantity= 1, #creating a new block (or identifying the proof number) is awarded with 1 ) last_hash = last_block.calculate_hash block = blockchain.construct_block(proof_no, last_hash) print(“***Mining fccCoin has been successful***”) print(blockchain.chain)
It worked!
Here is the output of the mining process:
***Mining fccCoin about to start*** [0 – 0 – 0 – [] – 1566930640.2707076] ***Mining fccCoin has been successful*** [0 – 0 – 0 – [] – 1566930640.2707076, 1 – 88914 – a8d45cb77cddeac750a9439d629f394da442672e56edfe05827b5e41f4ba0138 – [{‘sender’: ‘0’, ‘recipient’: ‘Quincy Larson’, ‘quantity’: 1}] – 1566930640.5363243]
Conclusion
There you have it!
That’s how you could create your own blockchain using Python.
Let me say that this tutorial just demonstrates the basic concepts for getting your feet wet in the innovative blockchain technology.
If this coin were deployed as-is, it could not meet the present market demands for a stable, secure, and easy-to-use cryptocurrency.
Therefore, it can still be improved by adding additional features to enhance its capabilities for mining and sending financial transactions.
Nonetheless, it’s a good starting point if you decide to make your name known in the amazing world of cryptos.
If you have any comments or questions, please post them below.
Happy (crypto) coding!
Source: Cryptoors
submitted by djkloud to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Hashgraph Vs Blockchain- Top 7 Differences That You Must Know

You know that blockchain technology is continuously evolving at a rapid pace. Blockchains impact is powerful and is impacting business, finance, education, governance, healthcare even in sports, music. There are other similar distributed ledger technologies(DLT) to replace blockchain technology by providing a better solution. Hashgraph is one of them. It solves the distributed ledger differently and claims to be safer, fast, and fair. So here, we will compare two technologies, Hashgraph and Blockchain and which one is better. Before we proceed to the comparison, let us see each one in detail.

What Is Hashgraph?

Hashgraph is a form of distributed consensus which offers another approach to distributed ledger technology. It is a peer-to-peer platform that expels the requirement for any intermediary to complete transactions. It offers a secure, fair and fast network, and its is implemented using Java and Lisp programming languages. This means it supports solidity. One of the best advantages of Hashgraph is its speed. It can handle thousands of transactions per second and is able to verify more than one million signatures per second.

What Is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a popular form of distributed ledger technology. This technology is used by every cryptocurrency ie., bitcoin. Here, peers communicate between themselves to form a peer-to-peer network. Bitcoin uses the basic form of blockchain technology but is not so efficient. Hence we have seen an ascent in another type of blockchain technology. Ethereum is successful with a huge active community. It is a second generation blockchain which means it supports dApps and smart contracts.
In technical terms, blockchain is a series of blocks or records and supports append-only structure. Despite that, the database is immutable means that data that once written, cannot be deleted or altered by anyone else. Hence blockchain is a perfect solution for the issue where data immutability is necessary. Best use cases of blockchain are, supply chain management, voting and finance industry.

Hashgraph vs Blockchain-

1. Programming Language-

Blockchain makes use of languages- Java, C++, Solidity, Ruby and Python. For hashgraph, Lisp and Java languages are used.

2. Approach-

Hashgraph makes use of directed acyclic graph to store and access information. Blockchains are an open-source technology. It stores data in blocks in a linear way. The append approach works seamlessly but it is not always a way for blockchain solutions out there. In both DLTs, each node as a copy of the ledger that makes it decentralized.

3. Consensus Mechanism –

Hashgraph is based on asynchronous Byzantine-Fault Tolerance (aBFT), which provides an improved model of DLT by catering solutions to established cryptocurrency platforms. It uses Gossip about Gossip and virtual voting as a form of gaining network consensus.
Blockchain does not depend on a single approach to consensus. Contingent on cryptography and currency, Blockchain uses numerous consensus algorithms, like Proof of Work, Proof-of-Elapsed Time, Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, Proof of Stake, and so on.

4. Speed-

Speed of blockchain varies according to the solution(platform, cryptocurrency, etc.). But it is slower than Hashgraphs. Hashgraph can reach a speed of 5,00,000 transactions per second. Blockchain solutions like ethereum, bitcoin are slow and can do 100 to 10,000 transactions per second. And the Hashgraph Gossip method is a reason behind its speed. With this, less information needs to be propagated across a network.

5. Security-

Blockchain uses a different approach where they use cryptographic methods to ensure security. As we already know, blockchain is a series of blocks or records and that blocks are tamper-proof and no malicious actor can change the integrity of data.
To secure a network from malicious actor, Hashgraph uses an approach- Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance(aBFT).

7. Efficiency-

Blockchain’s block approach makes it hard for miners to work on a block. There are many instances where two blocks are mined at the same time. At this time, miner’s community needs to decide on one block, and discard the other. At last, miner’s effort is wasted which results in a less efficient network.
Hashgraph is 100% efficient. Hashgraph doesn’t rely on block creation, hence it doesn’t suffer problem.

6. Development Stage-

We have seen that Hashgraph is secured, efficient and offers speed, but it lacks in terms of adoption. Blockchain technology is adopted by various companies and organizations but the adoption rate of Hashgraph is slow.

7. Fairness-

Blockchain is less fair with regards to miners or users. The miner has more power to select orders, process and stop transactions. This is not fair to anyone who is directly or indirectly connected to the network.
Hashgraph manages fairness in a different way. It allocates nodes randomly and uses consensus time stamping, meaning others can not be affected due to the order of transactions. However, the concept of fairness is still vague and isn’t clarified in the Hashgraph whitepaper. It is one of the significant aspects of Hashgraph versus Blockchain comparison.

Use Cases-

Use cases for Hashgraph-
Use cases for Blockchain-

Final words-

Hashgraph is a latest technology as compared to blockchain. But it doesn’t mean that it replaces blockchain. There are a lot of projects that can use blockchain instead of Hashgraph.
submitted by SolaceInfotech to DLT [link] [comments]

Blockchain in the Public Sector – Webcast Q&A

Blockchain in the Public Sector – Webcast Q&A
Link to our website: https://block.co/blockchain-in-the-public-sector-webcast-qa/
Block.co fourth webcast titled "Digital Transformation of the Public Sector & The Upcoming Legislation of Blockchain Technology in Cyprus” was an immense success. We gathered some of the best experts in the field, Deputy Minister Kyriacos Kokkinos, Jeff Bandman, Steve Tendon, and Christiana Aristidou to share their experience and discuss with us the latest updates regarding Blockchain in the Public Sector.
In its fourth series of webcasts, Block.co gathered 281 people watching the event from 41 different countries, for a two-hour webcast where guests answered participants’ questions. Following the impressive outcome and response we received from the audience, Block.co’s team has done its best to address all the questions for which public information is available.
Below is a list of the questions that were made and were not answered due to time constraints during the webcast. For the remaining questions from our audience, the team will reach out to our distinguished guests to receive their comments and feedback. Please note, that the below information is only for informational purposes!
Question 1:
How can asset tracing be accomplished with bitcoins and cryptocurrency? And how can this be regulated?
Block.co Team Answer:
Digital Asset tracing may be accomplished with cryptocurrency intelligence solutions such as Cipher Trace and the ICE cryptocurrency intelligence program. FATF (Financial Action Task Force) embarked on a program of work from summer 2018 to June 2019 to strengthen and update the provisions dealing with virtual assets and virtual asset service providers. FATF updated Recommendations in October 2018 and Guidance in June 2019 include several new obligations that apply to VASPs. The so-called “Travel Rule” FATF announced in October 2019 agreed on the assessment criteria for how it will assess countries’ compliance with the new global standards. Under the Travel Rule, the transmitter’s financial institutions must include and send information in the transmittal order such as Information about the identity, name, address, and account number of the sender and its financial institution Information about the identity, name, address and account number of the recipient. The ”Travel Rule” is effectively being applied to cryptoasset transfers when there is a virtual asset service provider (VASP) involved. The scope of focus has broadened from “convertible” virtual assets to any virtual asset. Countries should make sure businesses can freeze crypto wallet or exchange accounts for sanctioned individuals.
Question 2:
Which kind of software or technical knowledge is required to develop cryptocurrency?
Block.co Team Answer:
It depends on the type of cryptocurrency you wish to create, as well as the preferred functionality and features, and characteristics of the token or coin (i.e. will it be pre-mined, what type of hashing or cryptographic algorithm will be used (i.e. proof of work (POW) or proof of stake (POS) or a hybrid of both), etc. Likewise, it is useful to utilize a programming language that is broadly used and supported by a vast and active development community; more data could be found here: more information could be found here: top programming languages in 2015/2016, published by IEEE here, and TIOBE. Hypothetically, you can utilize any programming language to make cryptocurrency digital money, however, the most widely recognized are C, C++, Java, Python, Perl. The beauty of cryptocurrencies is that you can literally have access to the entire Bitcoin and Ethereum open-source programming scripts, and create your alternate coin (altcoin).
Question 3:
Hello all, I want to know about the current status of the European Union Blockchain initiative in currency or public identity.
Block.co Team Answer:
Please refer to the European Services Blockchain Infrastructure (EBSI) website.
Question 4:
Mining is also the process of confirmation of transactions in the Bitcoin Blockchain. What is the process of confirmation of transactions in the Blockchain of an Organization? How do we call it?
Block.co Team Answer:
That would depend on the specific consensus algorithm used for the confirmation of transactions. The consensus algorithm is part of the blockchain protocol that defines the rules on how consensus is reached on that blockchain. In order to participate, entities on the blockchain must obey and follow the same consensus algorithm. Make sure to check our glossary for more information.
Question 5:
How does a small business implement blockchain into its current non-blockchain software systems? Who do they hire to install it?
Block.co Team Answer:
It is easy when there are APIs to connect the various software. For more information, you can check Block.co API.
Question 6:
What is your opinion on digitizing developing economies like India by using AI and blockchain?
Block.co Team Answer:
Watch a very interesting webinar on the matter by Mr. Prasanna:
Question 7:
Blockchain technologies have been around since 2008. What would you say has been the biggest obstacle in widespread adoption?
Block.co Team Answer:
In our opinion, the biggest obstacles are volatile cryptoasset prices, complicated UIs, undefined blockchain technology standards. Moreover, the legislation around the technologies is still now being developed and does not offer legal certainty for broader adoption.
Question 8:
Limitations to Blockchain Usability in the Public Sector?
Block.co Team Answer:
Blockchain in the Public Sector, like any other innovative concept with big potential, cannot be a solution to every problem. Users and developers are still figuring out technological and managerial challenges. From a technological perspective, some aspects such as platform scalability, validation methods, data standardization, and systems integration must still be addressed. From a managerial point of view, the questions include business model transformation, incentive structure, and transaction scale, and maturity. Read more here.
Question 9:
How can these blockchain initiatives be practical for the African context
Block.co Team Answer:
As long as the internet infrastructure is in place, these blockchain initiatives may have the same benefits for the African region.
Question 10:
What are some compelling use cases you’ve seen lately, and how do they serve to further legitimize blockchain as a solution?
Block.co Team Answer:
You can see the global trends from all around the world when it comes to further legitimization as a solution, with China leading the way. Read more here.
Question 11:
How does digital currency manage the issue of money laundering?
Block.co Team Answer:
Depends under which context you are looking at the term digital currency. A digital currency usually refers to a balance or a record stored in a distributed database, in an electronic computer database, within digital files or a stored-value card. Some examples of digital currencies are cryptocurrencies, virtual currencies, central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), and e-Cash. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an intergovernmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to fight money laundering. Since 2001 FATF is also looking into terrorism financing. The objectives of FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing, and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system. FATF is a “policy-making body” that works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas. FATF monitors progress in implementing its Recommendations through “peer reviews” (“mutual evaluations”) of member countries. It is the global watchdog for anti-money laundering & counter-terrorist finance. In June 2019, it updated its guidance paper for Virtual Assets Service Providers (VASPs) regarding the transfer of digital assets. There was an insertion of a new interpretive note that sets out the application of the FATF Standards to virtual asset activities and service providers. To apply FATF Recommendations, countries should consider virtual assets as “property,” “proceeds,” “funds,” “funds or other assets,” or other “corresponding value.” Countries should apply the relevant measures under the FATF Recommendations to virtual assets and virtual asset service providers (VASPs). Read more about the FATF recommendations here).

https://preview.redd.it/58tt7mt1pld51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=d24811c4864ebf02cb9aacc8d6b877a1fbc3756b
Question 12:
To what extent can blockchain be used to improve the privacy of healthcare?
Block.co team Answer:
Please refer to our previous webcast, blog, and articles for more information.
Question 13:
What is Blockchain technology in Shipping?
Block.co team Answer:
The shipping sector has been in the hold of phony maritime institutes charging exorbitant fees via agents, issuing certificates to candidates who do not have the imperative attendance, or those candidates who just pay the fees for the course and ask for the certificate. In view of these fake accreditations, the possibility exists that someone could be harmed or killed, and we could face any number of potential ecological disasters. Having the option to easily verify the genuine origin of a certificate by an approved maritime center is foremost for shipping companies to fast-track their operation and streamline their labor.
Question 14:
Different uses of blockchain other than cryptocurrency?
Block.co team Answer:
Please refer to our blog and glossary.
Question 15:
Upcoming trends in Blockchain concerning Advertising, Marketing, and Public Relations in the Public and Private sectors.
Block.co Team Answer:
Regarding the application of blockchain technology to media copyrights, please see Block.co use case proposal during the Bloomen Ideathon.

https://preview.redd.it/48zc8j38pld51.png?width=3622&format=png&auto=webp&s=79987d1dc7eb8d0c8e32dbce8680b17801d0d244
Question 16:
How to create a decentralized blockchain?
Block.co Team Answer:
An excessive number of individuals feel that blockchain is some supernatural innovation that makes up a decentralized system. In truth, this innovation only enables decentralization. Which means, it permits cryptocurrency to work in a decentralized way. Yet, it doesn’t give any guarantees that it will work that way. Along these lines, it’s really, some outer variables that decide genuine decentralization. Technology, itself never really guarantees it. That is the reason it’s a mistake to expect that if it’s a blockchain — it’s decentralized. From a technical perspective, both blockchains, centralized, and decentralized are comparative, as they take work on distributed peer to peer to network. This implies every node is individually responsible to verify and store the shared ledger. Both Blockchains utilize either a proof-of-work or proof-of-stake mechanisms to make a solitary record and they have to give upper and lower limits on the security and productivity of the system. For more information please refer to our infographic.
Question 17:
Dubai government Blockchain implementation progress?
Block.co Team Answer:
You can see more information here.
Question 18:
How Blockchain and IoT can be integrated to secure data being transmitted through IoT devices.
Block.co Team Answer:
You can read more about it here.
Question 19:
How can the Nigerian government use Blockchain to effectively implement its existing launched eGovernment master plan?
Block.co Team Answer:
Perhaps it can draw its attention to the initiatives of Dubai, Estonia, and Malta to prepare an implementation framework.
Question 20:
What impact is blockchain going to have in today world of business especially in the financial sector
Block.co Team Answer:
Please refer to our recent article titled Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry.
Question 21:
Is Blockchain Technology affect individuals?
Block.co Team Answer:
The social effect of blockchain innovation has just started to be acknowledged and this may simply be a hint of something larger. Cryptocurrencies have raised questions over financial services through digital wallets, and while considering that there are in excess of 3,5 billion individuals on the planet today without access to banking, such a move is surely impactful. Maybe the move for cryptocurrencies will be simpler for developing nations than the process of fiat cash and credit cards. It is like the transformation that developing nations had with mobile phones. It was simpler to acquire mass amounts of mobile phones than to supply another infrastructure for landlines telephones. In addition to giving the underprivileged access to banking services, greater transparency could also raise the profile and effectiveness of charities working in developing countries that fall under corrupt or manipulative governments.
An expanded degree of trust in where the cash goes and whose advantages would without a doubt lead to expanded commitments and backing for the poor in parts of the world that are in urgent need of help. Blockchain technology is well placed to remove the possibility of vote-apparatus and the entirety of different negatives related to the current democratic procedure. Obviously, with new innovation, there are new obstacles and issues that will arise, yet the cycle goes on and those new issues will be comprehended with progressively modern arrangements. A decentralized record would give the entirety of the fundamental information to precisely record votes on an anonymous basis, and check the exactness and whether there had been any manipulation of the voting procedure.
Question 22:
As Andreas Antonopoulos often says in his MOOC: ”is a blockchain even needed?” Ie. Are there better methods?
Block.co Team Answer:
In combination with nascent technologies, IoT, distributed computing, and distributed ledger technologies, governments can provide inventive services and answers for the citizens and local municipalities. Blockchain can provide the component to create a safe framework to deal with these functions. In particular, it can provide a safe interoperable infrastructure that permits all smart city services and capacities to work past presently imagined levels. On the off chance that there were better techniques, they would be researched.
Question 23:
Would any of this be also applicable to the educational sector (as part of the general public sector), and if so in which way?
Block.co Team Answer:
Yes, please refer to our Webcast on Education and our blog post.
Question 24:
Will we be able to get a hold of this recording upon completion of the meeting?
Block.co Team Answer:
Yes, here is a link to the recording of our webcast Blockchain in the Public Sector.
Question 25:
Was wondering if there are any existing universal framework in governing the blockchain technology?
Block.co Team Answer:
The short answer is NO, as this framework is currently being prepared in collaboration with the various Member States.
We would like to thank everyone for attending our webcast and hoping to interact with you in future webinars. If you would like to watch the webinar again, then click here!
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
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submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

Anyone still under the illusion of Microsoft having been transformed into a kinder, more mutually beneficial partner, please read this patent.

WO2020060606 - CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020060606&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION
Before reading the following excerpts, keep this sequence of events in mind:
Master Slave (and we're not referring to HDDs here)
Step one: patent technology
Step two: sell slave IoT devices to consumers who readily purchase them especially after being promised that they'll be rewarded in cryotocurrency for their data.
Step three: collect data via Azure on unsuspecting human subjects' fMRI, EEG, body temperatures, EKG, sleep data, digitized health care information, consumer purchasing habits, reading and viewing preferences, social media activity and correlate with activities performed (tasks).
Step four: Use data to refine AI to profile human behavior, predict behavior and refine mind reading capabilities.
This article is actually incorporated in the patent!
https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/ Scientists use brain imaging to reveal the movies in our mind
Step five: Institute centralized global cryptocurrency financial system with no other alternatives in which to transact legally.
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4nag4b/1988_economist_cover_predicting_a_world_currency/
https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/1998/09/24/one-world-one-money
Step six: To understand step six, Read George Orwell's "1984" or review the concept of an individual's freedoms being based not on the concept of natural rights but on their social credit scores.
Thank you Microsoft, Google, Apple, Amazon, Facebook.
Now the patent excerpts:
CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA
BACKGROUND [0001] A virtual currency (also known as a digital currency) is a medium of exchange implemented through the Internet generally, not tied to a specific government-backed “flat” (printed) currency such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro, and typically designed to allow instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership. One example of virtual currency is cryptocurrency, wherein cryptography is used to secure transactions and to control the creation of new units. [0002] Several cryptocurrencies exist. Among these, the most well known is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Most blockchain-based cryptocurrency is decentralized in the sense that it has no central point of control.
However, blockchain-based cryptocurrency can also be implemented in a centralized system having a central point of control over the cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin is one of the examples of blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is described in a 2008 article by Satoshi Nakamoto, named“Bitcoin: A peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”.
[0003] A blockchain is a data structure that stores a list of transactions and can be thought of as a distributed electronic ledger that records transactions between source identifier(s) and destination identifier(s). The transactions are bundled into blocks and every block (except for the first block) refers back to or is linked to a prior block in the blockchain. Computer resources (or nodes, etc.) maintain the blockchain and cryptographically validate each new block and the transactions contained in the corresponding block. This validation process includes computationally solving a difficult problem that is also easy to verify and is sometimes called a“proof-of-work”. This process is referred to as“mining”. The mining may be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required to solve a computationally difficult problem. Accordingly, the mining may require enormous amounts of computational energy. [0004] It is with respect to these and other general considerations that the following embodiments have been described. Also, although relatively specific problems have been discussed, it should be understood that the embodiments should not be limited to solving the specific problems identified in the background.
SUMMARY
[0005] Some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may use human body activity associated with a task provided to a user as a solution to“mining” challenges in cryptocurrency systems. For example, a brain wave or body heat emitted from the user when the user performs the task provided by an information or service provider, such as viewing advertisement or using certain internet services, can be used in the mining process. Instead of massive computation work required by some conventional cryptocurrency systems, data generated based on the body activity of the user can be a proof-of-work, and therefore, a user can solve the computationally difficult problem unconsciously. Accordingly, certain exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may reduce computational energy for the mining process as well as make the mining process faster.
[0006] Systems, methods, and hardware aspects of computer readable storage media are provided herein for a cryptocurrency system using human body activity data. According to various embodiments of the present disclosure, a server may provide a task to a device of a user which is communicatively coupled to the server. A sensor communicatively coupled to or comprised in the device of the user may sense body activity of the user. Body activity data may be generated based on the sensed body activity of the user. A cryptocurrency system communicatively coupled to the device of the user may verify whether or not the body activity data satisfies one or more conditions set by the cryptocurrency system, and award cryptocurrency to the user whose body activity data is verified.
[0007] Examples are implemented as a computer process, a computing system, or as an article of manufacture such as a device, computer program product, or computer readable medium. According to one aspect, the computer program product is a computer storage medium readable by a computer system and encoding a computer program comprising instructions for executing a computer process. [0008] This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter.
decentralized cryptocurrency networks or databases.
[0021] FIG. 1 illustrates an example environment 100 in which some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced. The example environment 100 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of task server 110, communication network 120, user device 130, sensor 140, and cryptocurrency system 150. [0022] Task server 110 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130 over communication network 120. For example, task server 110 may be at least one of a web server delivering or serving up web pages, an application server handling application operations between users and applications or databases, a cloud server, a database server, a file server, a service server, a game server implementing games or services for a game, and a media server delivering media such as streaming video or audio. The tasks provided by task server 110 will be discussed in more detail below.
[0023] Alternatively, cryptocurrency system 150 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130. For example, in a decentralized cryptocurrency network, the tasks may be proposed to user device 130 by miners (e.g. compute resources or nodes 210 of FIG. 2). In another example, in a centralized cryptocurrency system, a cryptocurrency server may send the tasks to user device 130.
[0024] Communication network 120 may include any wired or wireless connection, the internet, or any other form of communication. Although one network 120 is identified in FIG. 1, communication network 120 may include any number of different communication networks between any of the server, devices, resource and system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 and/or other servers, devices, resources and systems described herein. Communication network 120 may enable communication between various computing resources or devices, servers, and systems. Various implementations of communication network 120 may employ different types of networks, for example, but not limited to, computer networks, telecommunications networks (e.g., cellular), mobile wireless data networks, and any combination of these and/or other networks. [0025] User device 130 may include any device capable of processing and storing data/information and communicating over communication network 120. For example, user device 130 may include personal computers, servers, cell phones, tablets, laptops, smart devices (e.g. smart watches or smart televisions). An exemplary embodiment of user device 130 is illustrated in FIG. 6.
[0026] Sensor 140 may be configured to sense the body activity of user 145. As illustrated in FIG. 1, sensor 140 may be a separate component from user device 130 and be operably and/or communicatively connected to user device 130. Alternatively, sensor 140 may be included and integrated in user device 130. For example, user device 130 may be a wearable device having sensor 140 therein. The sensor 140 may transmit information/data to user device 130. Sensor 140 may include, for example, but not limited to, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanners or sensors, electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors, heart rate monitors, thermal sensors, optical sensors, radio frequency (RF) sensors, ultrasonic sensors, cameras, or any other sensor or scanner that can measure or sense body activity or scan human body. For instance, the fMRI may measure body activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. The fMRI may use a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body (e.g. blood flow in the brain to detect areas of activity). The material (http://news.berkely.edu/20l l/09/22/brain-movies/) shows one example of how the fMRI can measure brain activity associated with visual information and generate image data.
[0027] Cryptocurrency system 150 may include one or more processors for processing commands and one or more memories storing information in one or more cryptocurrency data structures. In some embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a centralized cryptocurrency system or network, for example, but not limited to, a server which may be privately run by a third party entity or the same entity that is running the task server 110. In other embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a publically accessible network system (e.g., a distributed decentralized computing system).
https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/ Scientists use brain imaging to reveal the movies in our mind
WO2020060606 - CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020060606&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION
Applicants * MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC[US/US]; One Microsoft Way Redmond, Washington 98052-6399, US
CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA
BACKGROUND [0001] A virtual currency (also known as a digital currency) is a medium of exchange implemented through the Internet generally, not tied to a specific government-backed “flat” (printed) currency such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro, and typically designed to allow instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership. One example of virtual currency is cryptocurrency, wherein cryptography is used to secure transactions and to control the creation of new units. [0002] Several cryptocurrencies exist. Among these, the most well known is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Most blockchain-based cryptocurrency is decentralized in the sense that it has no central point of control.
However, blockchain-based cryptocurrency can also be implemented in a centralized system having a central point of control over the cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin is one of the examples of blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is described in a 2008 article by Satoshi Nakamoto, named“Bitcoin: A peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”.
[0003] A blockchain is a data structure that stores a list of transactions and can be thought of as a distributed electronic ledger that records transactions between source identifier(s) and destination identifier(s). The transactions are bundled into blocks and every block (except for the first block) refers back to or is linked to a prior block in the blockchain. Computer resources (or nodes, etc.) maintain the blockchain and cryptographically validate each new block and the transactions contained in the corresponding block. This validation process includes computationally solving a difficult problem that is also easy to verify and is sometimes called a“proof-of-work”. This process is referred to as“mining”. The mining may be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required to solve a computationally difficult problem. Accordingly, the mining may require enormous amounts of computational energy.
[0004] It is with respect to these and other general considerations that the following embodiments have been described. Also, although relatively specific problems have been discussed, it should be understood that the embodiments should not be limited to solving the specific problems identified in the background.
SUMMARY
[0005] Some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may use human body activity associated with a task provided to a user as a solution to“mining” challenges in cryptocurrency systems. For example, a brain wave or body heat emitted from the user when the user performs the task provided by an information or service provider, such as viewing advertisement or using certain internet services, can be used in the mining process. Instead of massive computation work required by some conventional cryptocurrency systems, data generated based on the body activity of the user can be a proof-of-work, and therefore, a user can solve the computationally difficult problem unconsciously. Accordingly, certain exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may reduce computational energy for the mining process as well as make the mining process faster.
[0006] Systems, methods, and hardware aspects of computer readable storage media are provided herein for a cryptocurrency system using human body activity data. According to various embodiments of the present disclosure, a server may provide a task to a device of a user which is communicatively coupled to the server. A sensor communicatively coupled to or comprised in the device of the user may sense body activity of the user. Body activity data may be generated based on the sensed body activity of the user. A cryptocurrency system communicatively coupled to the device of the user may verify whether or not the body activity data satisfies one or more conditions set by the cryptocurrency system, and award cryptocurrency to the user whose body activity data is verified.
[0007] Examples are implemented as a computer process, a computing system, or as an article of manufacture such as a device, computer program product, or computer readable medium. According to one aspect, the computer program product is a computer storage medium readable by a computer system and encoding a computer program comprising instructions for executing a computer process.
[0008] This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter.
decentralized cryptocurrency networks or databases. [0021] FIG. 1 illustrates an example environment 100 in which some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced. The example environment 100 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of task server 110, communication network 120, user device 130, sensor 140, and cryptocurrency system 150.
[0022] Task server 110 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130 over communication network 120. For example, task server 110 may be at least one of a web server delivering or serving up web pages, an application server handling application operations between users and applications or databases, a cloud server, a database server, a file server, a service server, a game server implementing games or services for a game, and a media server delivering media such as streaming video or audio. The tasks provided by task server 110 will be discussed in more detail below.
[0023] Alternatively, cryptocurrency system 150 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130. For example, in a decentralized cryptocurrency network, the tasks may be proposed to user device 130 by miners (e.g. compute resources or nodes 210 of FIG. 2). In another example, in a centralized cryptocurrency system, a cryptocurrency server may send the tasks to user device 130.
[0024] Communication network 120 may include any wired or wireless connection, the internet, or any other form of communication. Although one network 120 is identified in FIG. 1, communication network 120 may include any number of different communication networks between any of the server, devices, resource and system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 and/or other servers, devices, resources and systems described herein. Communication network 120 may enable communication between various computing resources or devices, servers, and systems. Various implementations of communication network 120 may employ different types of networks, for example, but not limited to, computer networks, telecommunications networks (e.g., cellular), mobile wireless data networks, and any combination of these and/or other networks.
[0025] User device 130 may include any device capable of processing and storing data/information and communicating over communication network 120. For example, user device 130 may include personal computers, servers, cell phones, tablets, laptops, smart devices (e.g. smart watches or smart televisions).
An exemplary embodiment of user device 130 is illustrated in FIG. 6.
[0026] Sensor 140 may be configured to sense the body activity of user 145. As illustrated in FIG. 1, sensor 140 may be a separate component from user device 130 and be operably and/or communicatively connected to user device 130. Alternatively, sensor 140 may be included and integrated in user device 130. For example, user device 130 may be a wearable device having sensor 140 therein. The sensor 140 may transmit information/data to user device 130. Sensor 140 may include, for example, but not limited to, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanners or sensors, electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors, heart rate monitors, thermal sensors, optical sensors, radio frequency (RF) sensors, ultrasonic sensors, cameras, or any other sensor or scanner that can measure or sense body activity or scan human body. For instance, the fMRI may measure body activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. The fMRI may use a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body (e.g. blood flow in the brain to detect areas of activity). The material (http://news.berkely.edu/20l l/09/22/brain-movies/) shows one example of how the fMRI can measure brain activity associated with visual information and generate image data.
[0027] Cryptocurrency system 150 may include one or more processors for processing commands and one or more memories storing information in one or more cryptocurrency data structures. In some embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a centralized cryptocurrency system or network, for example, but not limited to, a server which may be privately run by a third party entity or the same entity that is running the task server 110. In other embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a publically accessible network system (e.g., a distributed decentralized computing system).
https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/ Scientists use brain imaging to reveal the movies in our mind
submitted by snowboardnirvana to MVIS [link] [comments]

Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19

Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19
Link to our article: https://block.co/blockchain-in-healthcare/
There’s never been a better time to provide proof-of-health solutions in the healthcare system globally. While it’s difficult to comprehend the significance of the role that technology may offer in such difficult times, essentially it can be nailed down to its basic concept of simplifying work and coordinating activities, which could have helped avoid the worst crisis people have experienced in their lifetime. If the healthcare system would adopt technological innovations in the early stages, it could have benefited and saved many lives.
Although the healthcare system has traditionally been slow in embracing the latest digital solutions, just like many other industries, we’ve observed in a previous article how the Covid-19 crisis has accelerated the adoption of digital technologies on a global scale in several industries, including healthcare.
The latest webcast brought to the audience by Block.co hosted some high profile experts from the industry. They illustrated how blockchain especially, together with other technologies such as IoT, and AI could in the future help elevate prompt responses, and provide more secure and efficient storage of data, something that has been missed in the recent pandemic.
Ahmed Abdulla from Digipharm, Dr. Alice Loveys from EY, and Dimitrios Neocleous from VeChain were hosted by Georgina Kyriakoudes, one of the first in the world to hold an MSc in Digital Currency, founder of Dcentric.Health and creator of the permissioned blockchain ecosystem app called Aria, which aims to transform the patient healthcare experience by giving individuals full control of their medical records.
Blockchain’s benefits in healthcare are primarily identified by efficiency, specifically on the transfer of data, facilitation of goods transport via the supply chain, prevention of counterfeit medicines sale, secure storage, and exchange of data around ID management. The impressive projects all the webcast guests have developed in the industry enable just these features, from the digitization of patient records to storage and exchange of medical data as well as easier processing of funds.
https://preview.redd.it/7k85objjz1851.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=237293e731024ae8f50861682c434b04d7742e05
Ahmed Abdulla founded Digipharm with the idea of issuing tokens to allow patients to be in control of their medical records at all times. Moreover, tokens are issued to be paid for anonymously sharing personal medical data to help research; pay for healthcare based on how it has improved quality of life.
We have experienced a disparity in Covid-19 tests costs around the world. For instance, getting tested in Cyprus costs around €60 while in the US it may add up to a few thousand dollars. This is due to the way countries arrange payment setups from payers to providers. Blockchain empowers people to take ownership of their records and funds while providing transparency of processes. This is where blockchain can be robust, by increasing transparency and allowing the patient to secure money transfer and hold their own records”, stated Ahmed.
His work as blockchain advisor at the UN Economic Commission for Europe is helping set up standards for the blockchain ecosystem, namely how the system should be used safely, and in a way that benefits all stakeholders.
“I lead the blockchain and healthcare team at the UN center for trade facilitation and e-business where we developed a blockchain and trade facilitation white paper; the second phase will soon provide an advanced technology advisory board to advise private or public stakeholders on what’s the best technology to use. It might not always be blockchain, hence we first understand and then advise if the tech is right for them or not. Blockchain is clunky, expensive, and not always proper for the organization we work with”, continued the blockchain expert.
Most people may prefer public and permissionless blockchain because it has major advantages over a private and permissioned one. Transparency stands out for the way the ledger is shared and for due diligence becoming unnecessary as a result. This means costs are also cheaper, in the range of 100% lower. On the other hand, a public decentralized blockchain has a major disadvantage since no legal framework is laid out. This means uncertainty as there is still a grey area in the legal field that might create confusion.
Dimitrios Neocleous is Ecosystem Manager at VeChain Tech and directly supported digital and technological solutions provider I-DANTE with the creation of the E-NewHealthLife and the E-HCert for the Mediterranean Hospital of Cyprus. Both apps give patients control over their health records, improve medical data sharing, and increase hospital operational efficiencies by simplifying the process of visiting a hospital.
E-NewHealthLife is a complex ecosystem solution that starts from a patient’s visit to an emergency room. A card with the reason for a patient’s visit is issued; it gets time-stamped; the patient is sent to the waiting room; once the patient’s turn comes and the medical check is completed, the card is scanned and the visit is closed. Patients can digitally access all diagnoses that took place anytime at the hospital.
“The platform produces a digital health passport, which is an encrypted non-fungible card that patients can use to identify themselves automatically when registering at the hospital’s emergency room. The passport is stored within a mobile app called E-HCert, which keeps track of each patient’s medical data and can be shared as needed”, announced Dimitrios.
E-HCert App is a Covid-19 lab test electronic wallet and pushes up the results of a patient who’s been tested for COVID. It has been proven to be very successful so far; currently, 2000 people who transited through the Larnaca airport in Cyprus have downloaded the app. With time-stamped records, it’s able to provide data such as the day and time when the sample was collected, it offers immutability, security, and integrity of data.
https://preview.redd.it/kqq7jfgpz1851.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=2c9a121e0a4839125418db7ff61ae3957c3fff41
“Covid-19 showed a deficiency in healthcare. The spread of the virus could have been prevented if we had digitization of processes and transparency of data through blockchain, and transfer of data through an authorized share of records. An open permissionless decentralized blockchain helps bring ownership of medical records back to the patient, and that is not possible in a centralized system”, continued the VeChain representative.
Dr. Alice Loveys is EY ‘s healthcare blockchain leader in the US and has been at the forefront of emerging healthcare technologies for her entire career including being a pioneer in electronic health record adoption, health information exchange, and privacy and security.
She believes that “blockchain technology is like a plumbing system that brings clean and transparent trusted data that can be used. It’s not proper for a track and trace system as it invades privacy unless there is the consent from patients, in that case, blockchain transparent share of data would be extremely useful for medical research and testing”.
One problem we experienced during the crisis is the confusion that arose with divulged information and the frustration that comes with it. People do not understand anymore which information can be trusted; at first, it looked like COVID-19 symptoms were not dangerous, then it came out that they actually were. Masks were not useful at the beginning, then they suddenly became necessary.
“Blockchain could have prevented lockdown and economic crisis through data management in that a much faster response would have been provided to tackle misinformation because blockchain can help manage data from different sources”, continues Dr. Loveys. “Moreover, it’s a great way to protect the database. Instead of moving any private sensitive medical data through the more traditional digital systems, blockchain simply allows us to send an algorithm, encrypted data that safeguards the information. It’s not a great use as a database as it does not scale, therefore we would not be able to store information for billions of people in it. But for the data that is in the blockchain, using algorithms, makes it very convenient and secure”.
Another topic discussed during the webcast was the GDPR compliance for blockchain. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) was created before blockchain therefore it doesn’t account for decentralized technologies. Generally speaking, it all comes down to how the technology is used and what kind of data is incorporated in it. Timestamping data without invading anyone’s privacy, or timestamp of consented data, should determine no issue at all. This is what privacy by design stands for, taking human values into account in a well-defined manner throughout the whole process.
Block.co, powered by the University of Nicosia, is establishing itself as a global leader in the issuance of digital immutable and secure certificates timestamped on the Bitcoin blockchain. In the field of healthcare, it could include medical records, prescription issuance, insurance disputes, supply chain documentation, and any type of verifiable certificate that requires authenticity at its core.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Tel +357 70007828
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Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry
Link to original article: https://block.co/benefits-of-blockchain-technology-in-the-banking-industry/
The rapidly growing interest around blockchain is creating an increased amount of use cases across multiple industries, and a high demand for adoption by many governments. Banking, financial services, and insurance (BFSI) industry is predicted to be drastically transformed by this disruptive technology. According to Allied Market Research 2019, the blockchain value in the BFSI market reached $277.1 million in 2018 and is projected to reach $22.46 billion by 2026. Blockchain technology has the potential to solve the pain points of the current banking systems and operations including security, transparency, trust, privacy, programmability, and performance.
What is Blockchain?
Blockchain is the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, that was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, as a response to the failing financial system during the crisis. It is often associated and confused with Bitcoin, but the scope of the technology is much wider. It is also important to differentiate between the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and blockchain, as the terms often used interchangeably. All blockchains are DLT, but not all DLTs are blockchains. DLT is simply a decentralized database managed on a peer-to-peer basis.
“Blockchain is a type of DLT, a subcategory of a more broad definition, much like how the word ‘car’ falls under the umbrella term ‘vehicles’ and ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ falls under ‘geniuses’.”
In essence, blockchain is a continuous sequential chain of records (‘blocks’) that are chronologically linked together with the aid of cryptography, to ensure immutability. These records are immutable, as any change to the information recorded in a particular block is stored in a new block. Moreover, the use of modern encryption algorithms enables the security of all the records from copying or editing by other users of the system. Blockchain can be programmed to record not only financial transactions as cryptocurrency but almost anything of value (Deloitte Insights, 2019).

https://preview.redd.it/k76j8u5401751.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=e7f6573a230c816a112ae4bf561f3501c353ad32
How Blockchain Can Improve Banking Industry?
The modern banking system is not perfect and commercial banks have not changed a lot to their servicing structure since the 1970s (Haycock & Richmond, 2015). Running a bank still requires large numbers of the workforce, reliance on quite outdated systems, bloated structures with high probabilities of human error, and manual work. There are several aspects, which could be improved by the application of blockchain technology in banking operations:
1) Security Enhancement
In the UK the overall value of the financial fraud losses (e.g. payment cards, remote banking, cheques) equaled £844.8 million in 2018. The situation is even worse in the US — $170 billion average yearly losses in the financial sector. According to KPMG’s Global Banking Fraud Survey 2019 the total volume, number, and value of the fraudulent activities are drastically increasing every year.
The nature of banking operations dictates the need for centralized systems, which proved to be vulnerable and subject to cyber and hack attacks. Now, the blockchain is immutable as it operates on the principles of decentralization and transparency, and all the network participants get an identical copy of the distributed ledger of transactions. Thus, if applied in banking, blockchain can increase the validity and security of the financial transactions, eliminate the need for third-party authentication, and solve the issue of a single point of failure and hacks.
Moreover, since each transaction on the blockchain has its unique fingerprint (hash) it can be easily traced and verified. Such functionality makes blockchain a great tool to combat money laundering and reduce fraudulent or illegal transactions (Guo & Liang, 2016).
2) Improving Financial Transactions Efficiency
As we mentioned previously, the utilization of obsolete mechanisms and operational systems slows down the performance of banking institutions and provides ground for human error, delays, and system failures. All these inefficiencies could be solved by applying blockchain technology. Take for example the time-consuming bilateral exchange. The process of data reconciliation needed for it could be simplified, as on the blockchain, it is inherently part of a transaction (IBM, 2016).
Blockchain and its decentralized nature eliminate intermediaries in banking operations, which significantly cuts transaction costs and boosts efficiency (Cocco et al., 2017). Blockchain does not require intermediaries, enables cross-border transfers and micro-payments, while drastically decreasing operational costs. Such transactions in the traditional banking environment are expensive (from 1% of the amount), and constitute a huge expense on a global scale. In cryptocurrency networks, transfers may range from a few minutes down to milliseconds, and the transaction fees are decided by the market forces, meaning users have the option to set their transaction fees (Deloitte, 2017).
3) Workflow Simplification
Blockchain can simplify the current complex workflow in banking institutions. As any operation can be traced, the ability to automate processes significantly reduces costs and the need for manual work. Moreover, it is impossible to make retroactive changes on the blockchain. This guarantees data immutability and excludes the human factor, thus the probability of error, data tampering, or even leakage. Using blockchain in banking operations will digitize and automate tons of manual work, greatly boost the productivity of the financial institutions and eliminate the probability of mistakes, delays, and errors.
4) Enhanced KYC & AML
Some financial institutions find it difficult to deal with problems related to policies such as Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC). Numerous organizations are not able to solve these problems, due to the rapidly escalating costs. The adoption of the blockchain technology will enable the creation of a system where all clients’ information may be stored safely, making the independent verification an easy process or even automated securely. In this way, both AML and KYC processes will become simpler and easier, as all involved organizations will share the same system and the information will be updated in real-time, perhaps through the use of Digital Identities. In addition to this, blockchain technology will assist the organizations to minimize their administrative costs and reduce the workload.

https://preview.redd.it/200e0ap701751.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=6caaf26c53786c1341b7905ca33dd340f8929059
5) Smart Contracts
Smart contracts are an innovative development of blockchain technology which enables for time and resources saving, as they do not require a third-party interaction. Traditional contracts do not differ a lot from smart contracts, however, their key benefit is that obligations are automatically enforced and cannot be avoided by anyone.
When smart contracts are integrated with blockchain technology, we enjoy benefits such as security, automation, immutability, and transparency. The integration of smart contracts in the financial sector will provide opportunities for transparent auditing and real-time remittances. Traditional contracts are paper-based and require financial institutions to invest money in paperwork and maintain records. These records can be easily manipulated as they are on paper. Smart contracts offer bank tools for bookkeeping based on blockchain. Smart contracts have already been applied to the financial industry to gain greater automation.
6) Decentralized Finance
Another application of blockchain is Decentralized Finance, also known as DeFi. This application is at an early stage but its disruptiveness enables millions of people across the world to have access to financial services. DeFi refers to decentralized applications, financial smart contracts, digital assets as well as protocols popular as DApps, which are built on public blockchains such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The aim of DeFi is the creation of a decentralized financial system that will not depend on the traditional banking system.
Decentralized Finance offers numerous benefits to the users as it eliminates middlemen, enables everyone who does not has access to financial services to enter the global economy as it is a permission-less technology, and enables innovation with the combination of DeFi products. Besides, the use of decentralized finance increases the symmetry of information and democratizes financial services in this sense. The evolution of DeFi over the years means that most people around the world are only limited by their imagination when considering how to gain benefits from the financial ecosystem. However, there are still many complexities that need addressing to further expand the full extent of the possibilities of DeFi.
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Microsoft patents scheme to usher in technocratic fascism via data from IoT sensor devices and centralized cryptocurrency system

WO2020060606 - CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020060606&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION
Before reading the following excerpts, keep this sequence of events in mind:
Master Slave (and we're not referring to HDDs here)
Step one: patent technology
Step two: sell slave IoT devices to consumers who readily purchase them especially after being promised that they'll be rewarded in cryotocurrency for their data.
Step three: collect data via Microsoft Azure on unsuspecting human subjects' fMRI, EEG, body temperatures, EKG, sleep data, digitized health care information, consumer purchasing habits, reading and viewing preferences, social media activity and correlate with activities performed (tasks).
Step four: Use data to refine AI to profile human behavior, predict behavior and refine mind reading capabilities.
This article is actually incorporated in the patent!
https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/ Scientists use brain imaging to reveal the movies in our mind
Step five: Institute centralized global cryptocurrency financial system with no other alternatives in which to transact legally.
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4nag4b/1988_economist_cover_predicting_a_world_currency/
https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/1998/09/24/one-world-one-money
Step six: To understand step six, read George Orwell's "1984" or review the concept of an individual's freedoms being based not on the concept of natural rights but on their social credit scores.
Thank you Microsoft, Google, Apple, Amazon, Facebook.
Now the patent excerpts:
CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA BACKGROUND [0001] A virtual currency (also known as a digital currency) is a medium of exchange implemented through the Internet generally, not tied to a specific government-backed “flat” (printed) currency such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro, and typically designed to allow instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership. One example of virtual currency is cryptocurrency, wherein cryptography is used to secure transactions and to control the creation of new units. [0002] Several cryptocurrencies exist. Among these, the most well known is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Most blockchain-based cryptocurrency is decentralized in the sense that it has no central point of control.
However, blockchain-based cryptocurrency can also be implemented in a centralized system having a central point of control over the cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin is one of the examples of blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is described in a 2008 article by Satoshi Nakamoto, named“Bitcoin: A peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”.
[0003] A blockchain is a data structure that stores a list of transactions and can be thought of as a distributed electronic ledger that records transactions between source identifier(s) and destination identifier(s). The transactions are bundled into blocks and every block (except for the first block) refers back to or is linked to a prior block in the blockchain. Computer resources (or nodes, etc.) maintain the blockchain and cryptographically validate each new block and the transactions contained in the corresponding block. This validation process includes computationally solving a difficult problem that is also easy to verify and is sometimes called a“proof-of-work”. This process is referred to as“mining”. The mining may be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required to solve a computationally difficult problem. Accordingly, the mining may require enormous amounts of computational energy.
[0004] It is with respect to these and other general considerations that the following embodiments have been described. Also, although relatively specific problems have been discussed, it should be understood that the embodiments should not be limited to solving the specific problems identified in the background.
SUMMARY
[0005] Some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may use human body activity associated with a task provided to a user as a solution to“mining” challenges in cryptocurrency systems.
For example, a brain wave or body heat emitted from the user when the user performs the task provided by an information or service provider, such as viewing advertisement or using certain internet services, can be used in the mining process. Instead of massive computation work required by some conventional cryptocurrency systems, data generated based on the body activity of the user can be a proof-of-work, and therefore, a user can solve the computationally difficult problem unconsciously. Accordingly, certain exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may reduce computational energy for the mining process as well as make the mining process faster.
[0006] Systems, methods, and hardware aspects of computer readable storage media are provided herein for a cryptocurrency system using human body activity data. According to various embodiments of the present disclosure, a server may provide a task to a device of a user which is communicatively coupled to the server. A sensor communicatively coupled to or comprised in the device of the user may sense body activity of the user. Body activity data may be generated based on the sensed body activity of the user. A cryptocurrency system communicatively coupled to the device of the user may verify whether or not the body activity data satisfies one or more conditions set by the cryptocurrency system, and award cryptocurrency to the user whose body activity data is verified.
[0007] Examples are implemented as a computer process, a computing system, or as an article of manufacture such as a device, computer program product, or computer readable medium. According to one aspect, the computer program product is a computer storage medium readable by a computer system and encoding a computer program comprising instructions for executing a computer process.
[0008] This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter. decentralized cryptocurrency networks or databases.
[0021] FIG. 1 illustrates an example environment 100 in which some exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced. The example environment 100 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of task server 110, communication network 120, user device 130, sensor 140, and cryptocurrency system 150.
[0022] Task server 110 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130 over communication network 120. For example, task server 110 may be at least one of a web server delivering or serving up web pages, an application server handling application operations between users and applications or databases, a cloud server, a database server, a file server, a service server, a game server implementing games or services for a game, and a media server delivering media such as streaming video or audio. The tasks provided by task server 110 will be discussed in more detail below.
[0023] Alternatively, cryptocurrency system 150 may provide one or more tasks to user device 130. For example, in a decentralized cryptocurrency network, the tasks may be proposed to user device 130 by miners (e.g. compute resources or nodes 210 of FIG. 2). In another example, in a centralized cryptocurrency system, a cryptocurrency server may send the tasks to user device 130.
[0024] Communication network 120 may include any wired or wireless connection, the internet, or any other form of communication. Although one network 120 is identified in FIG. 1, communication network 120 may include any number of different communication networks between any of the server, devices, resource and system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 and/or other servers, devices, resources and systems described herein. Communication network 120 may enable communication between various computing resources or devices, servers, and systems. Various implementations of communication network 120 may employ different types of networks, for example, but not limited to, computer networks, telecommunications networks (e.g., cellular), mobile wireless data networks, and any combination of these and/or other networks. [0025] User device 130 may include any device capable of processing and storing data/information and communicating over communication network 120. For example, user device 130 may include personal computers, servers, cell phones, tablets, laptops, smart devices (e.g. smart watches or smart televisions). An exemplary embodiment of user device 130 is illustrated in FIG. 6.
[0026] Sensor 140 may be configured to sense the body activity of user 145. As illustrated in FIG. 1, sensor 140 may be a separate component from user device 130 and be operably and/or communicatively connected to user device 130. Alternatively, sensor 140 may be included and integrated in user device 130. For example, user device 130 may be a wearable device having sensor 140 therein. The sensor 140 may transmit information/data to user device 130. Sensor 140 may include, for example, but not limited to, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanners or sensors, electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors, heart rate monitors, thermal sensors, optical sensors, radio frequency (RF) sensors, ultrasonic sensors, cameras, or any other sensor or scanner that can measure or sense body activity or scan human body. For instance, the fMRI may measure body activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. The fMRI may use a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body (e.g. blood flow in the brain to detect areas of activity).
The material (http://news.berkely.edu/20ll/09/22/brain-movies/) shows one example of how the fMRI can measure brain activity associated with visual information and generate image data.
[0027] Cryptocurrency system 150 may include one or more processors for processing commands and one or more memories storing information in one or more cryptocurrency data structures. In some embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a centralized cryptocurrency system or network, for example, but not limited to, a server which may be privately run by a third party entity or the same entity that is running the task server 110. In other embodiments, cryptocurrency system 150 may be a publically accessible network system (e.g., a distributed decentralized computing system).
https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies/ Scientists use brain imaging to reveal the movies in our mind
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How Blockchain is important for App Developers?

With newer technologies being launched each day, the tendency to the adoption of such leading edge engineering methodologies has been boosting every industrial area. The present market situation is such, in the event that you have to remain in the opposition, you have to get the new components of innovation. In the present market, if you have to stay in the competition, you have to pick up the new elements of technology. With startups failing to implement them, mobile application experts are struggling to keep pace with such huge numbers of techs simultaneously, exploring the massive growth of the current industry seems like a needful task.
Over numerous years, block-chain has held its status as a progressive thought with positive perspectives for multiple industries. This digital ledger system became popular during the times of cryptocurrency, and since then, been praised for its secure and reliable approach. Block-chain includes features like peer-to-peer payment architecture, decentralization, and security which makes it fascinating for developers. In the field of mobile apps, block-chain serves as a bountiful example, to build applications that are free from frauds, data leaks, and security threats.
Given the circumstances, blockchain is a concept of developers, the practical applications of which are in the initial stages of development. However, once understood, it holds a tremendous capacity to revolutionize the market. This game-changing technology is an important trend for the mobile app industry.

What is Blockchain Technology?

The reliable system operates by transforming data across network steadily so that no participants in the system are able to hack or tamper the blocks distributed. The blocks formed with a cryptographically line that helps to prevent a reformed process from an unknown member.
This blockchain holds distinctive features of distributed ledger technology, which safely stores data over the peer-to-peer network. Blockchain ledgers can involve land documents, loans, integrity, assets, and inventory etc. that can be stored strongly, where everyone has permission to see yet can’t change the results shared.

How Does Blockchain Work?

A blockchain is a string of numerous blocks stored together. Each time a transaction occurs, it creates a new block and is stored in the digital ledger system.
The following points state how blockchain works-
  1. A transaction needs to happen. For instance, you bought something from the XYZ store. When you have made a purchase, a block is created for it. Now, every transaction is grouped with thousands of other transactions in the block.
  2. The transaction should be checked. That is the job for a network of computers. These systems verify whether a transaction occurred from the XYZ store. When they confirm details of the purchase, it is verified.
  3. The transaction has to be stored in the block. When your transaction is verified, along with its dollar amount, digital signature, and the XYZ store’s digital signature, all this information is stored in the block. This block then joins the other hundreds and thousands of blocks, like it.
  4. The block should be assigned a unique code/hash. Once the information is verified, it is provided with a unique identifying code, the hash. Once hashed, the block can then be added to the blockchain.
Each new block added to the blockchain is public. That implies anyone can see it. Details like who when were the block added, where was it added, and by whom was it added is visible to the users of the blockchain.

Does this Mean, Blockchain has a Public Infrastructure?

It is true, anyone can see the contents of the blockchain. In a blockchain, you can also connect your computers to the blockchain, as nodes. Along these lines, every computer in the blockchain network receives a copy of every block whenever it is updated. It’s like your News Feed, when there is an update, you see the new fresh content at the top. So, when everyone can view each information, where does the security feature in blockchain come from?
In a blockchain network, there are millions of copies of the same block. This implies each copy of the blockchain is identical. So, it’s not possible for anyone to keep a record of such huge numbers of events. If any programmer needs to even manipulate the data of any block, they should change every copy on the blockchain network. Also, since you don’t have any knowledge of the users making the transactions, its data, to any hacker or user, is completely anonymous.
Only those who hold details regarding the digital signature or the username can access the information in a block and understand it. In this way hacking and manipulation is something that can’t occur in a blockchain environment.

Why is Blockchain a Popular Concept for Mobile App Developers?

Blockchain was first referenced in BitcoinTalk, the largest forum committed to Bitcoin. Many-a-times blockchain is said to give a steady base to cryptocurrency operations. In the previous few years, it has gained tremendous popularity, as a technology database.
But, what invited its attention in the minds of the developers was its decentralized nature and secure access. Since then, blockchain has become a fascinating idea for developers. Surely, it leads to transparency, yet it decreases fraudulent transactions, and data tampering activities as well.
Application developers are using this technology to make digital payments more accessible, simple, and secure. The nature of peer-to-peer transactions makes it an ideal fit for banking applications that needs such a type of technology.
You can also know- A Complete Guide To Choose Block-chain Platform For Business Growth.

Blockchain can Reshape the Future for Mobile App Developers-

Blockchain provides an edge to all those people who like to indulge in digital payments rather than cash to cash transactions.

But why is blockchain said to be fit in today’s market scenario?

digital transformations are at its top in the 21st century. Each business has a digital store, and an ever increasing number of customers are accessing the online platforms, to enjoy everyday services as well.
The digital world is providing the right momentum to blockchain technology and has evoke its need in the market. Blockchain is becoming increasingly popular for mobile payment apps because of its exceptionally secured features.
Let us see common types of blockchain-based mobile apps-
1. Apps for exchanging cryptocurrencies- This way, a person is totally in control of the digital resources and perform trading transactions using them. Such applications can be used for a wide range of payments and transactions.
2. E-wallets- E-wallets that can store all the digital assets and money. You can carry out the transactions through the application powered by blockchain technology.
3. Apps that help you to track rates- cryptocurrency trades, market dynamics and other scope of blockchain services.
4. Retails applications with a background of blockchain technology allowing customers to pay using cryptocurrency and bitcoin.
Now, let’s look why blockchain is apt for mobile app developers-

1. Enhanced data protection and privacy –

Blockchain is known for its great security. Developers can use this tech, to create multiple protection layers into their data. The private keys to this data will be just assigned to the users, making it impossible for anyone without a decryption key, to manipulate the transaction details. Since it is a decentralized system, it keeps a replica of each transaction on its computer network. This reduces the risk of data loss as well. Since hackers won’t have any knowledge about the user’s data and their private key as well, no fraudulent or unauthorized activities can take place.

2. Data transparency is an advantage too-

In a blockchain, the information about every transaction is visible to everyone. This implies anyone can see the details in real-time. However, since the data is stored by digital names and signatures, it is mysterious to others. They can see the transaction but will not know who made it (the real name and personal information). This way, no one can change the information in a specific block. Blockchain stores all the data in public view. Hence, if the user makes any manipulations to their data also, it won’t go unnoticed. Log for each change is made in this digital ledger system.

3. Secure mobile payments –

Introducing blockchain with mobile app serve one central motto, securing digital payments. Since more and more people are opting contactless mobile payments, protecting them with blockchain’s secure architecture seems to be a good idea. Numerous developers are focussing on coding a a more secure and affordable mobile payments app.
Blockchain will help these developers in securing the infrastructure of similar mobile apps. Also, since thousands of nodes function, it is improbable that they will crash simultaneously. This also reduces the downtime of such applications.

4. No need for passwords anymore –

To deal with any application, you need a password and login-id to authenticate your users. There are a lot of issues related to use of passwords. Anyone can track it and if you forget your password, getting a new one is a tedious task. With blockchain, users don’t need any password. The network of computers connected validates a transaction. Also, since blockchain is built on cryptographic codes like a hash that uses a digital signature to unlock all the digital assets for the involved parties, the authentication systems of such applications will become immutable, irrefutable, and incorruptible. This makes the process of accessing your resources, a seamless experience.

5. Improves the Efficiency of apps –

For each mobile application you use, you need a third-party mediator for it. In a blockchain, you do not need any party to finish the transaction. This improves the effectiveness and the speed of transactions. As indicated by a report, blockchain-based transactions are 10 times faster than the bank ones. In a blockchain, every transaction is approved by a computer. Hence, dissimilar to a traditional bank that takes days to settle a transaction, blockchain can do it in 2-3 minutes.

6. It reduces the cost per transaction-

In normal transactions that include third-party apps, blockchain removes any such middlemen. Also, the intermediate parties charge per transaction that reaches completion using their portal. Blockchain doesn’t charge any such fee and still gets the transaction completed. The eviction of such mediators reduces the transactional costs for both, the business and the users.
submitted by SolaceInfotech to blockchaindeveloper [link] [comments]

BLOCK CHAIN IN HEALTHCARE: A ONE-STOP SOLUTION?

BLOCK CHAIN IN HEALTHCARE: A ONE-STOP SOLUTION?
A review of the various application-areas of blockchain in healthcare and the solutions it can provide to the existing problems"

https://preview.redd.it/cstlsemniww41.jpg?width=275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ea478529fe5d856056a00dcde596b8c2d49708df
These words by Hyperledger are a strong reflection on the potential of this exciting technology of Blockchain to disrupt the world. What got introduced via Bitcoin in 2008 has today, spread itself across different sectors ranging from healthcare to finance to supply-chain and many else. Industries all over the word are appreciating and accepting this innovation and here, we shall discuss about one such industry- the healthcare industry.
We shall discuss about usage of blockchain in this sector, the problems in healthcare and how blockchain can contribute in solving these problems. But before we proceed further and discuss all these stuff, let’s first have an introduction to blockchain:
What is Blockchain?
Lets keep the intro simple here. Going by the literal meaning of Block-chain, it’s a chain of blocks. What’s left is the meaning of “block” and “chain”. So, block is the digital information here and chain is the database on which this information is stored.

https://preview.redd.it/0fab4leqiww41.jpg?width=1236&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=07b52f0508bf7ff6fa5997d661e260e8a925b57a
So, basically Blockchain is a technology which describes chain of transactions or data records which are linked to each other via cryptographic signatures (hash), stored in ledgers and which are aided by a seamless network of connected processes which are known as nodes. The technology works in such a way that the data is unchangeable (immutable) before reaching the recipient.
Due to it being decentralized, and the immutability and transparency it provides, Blockchain has gained a world-wide admiration. Sectors all over the world are fastly adopting it and the number of block-chain based startups are growing at an unprecedented rate. If we go by stats, the valuation of global market in blockchain shall be able to reach all the way up to approx $20 billion in 2024. This is pretty promising to say the least.
So, that’s all for the intro! We shall move now towards the core of this article-:
Blockchain in healthcare : Review
While it would be wrong to say that the medical field hasn’t achieved innovation, especially when we have a look at the increased life-expectancy rates in the world but at the very same time, it would be pretty-much fair to state that the healthcare-sector has lacked in horizontal innovation i.e. the ways hospitals work. For example, Hospitals still use papers, files, fax-machines etc. to record and transfer data which clearly shows a lack of horizontal innovation.
All these issues show that this health-care sector is perfectly poised to take advantage of the disruption blockchain can bring. Block-chain could completely transform the way data is stored and transmitted in this industry. And the stats show the industry is ready for it!
A survey done by Hyperledger shows that approx, 42.9% of healthcare organizations believe in a swift blockchain implementation due to the interoperability that exists with electronic health records. It goes on to state that approx 28.6% of respondents are ready to use Blockchain in care settings from today itself. The total market for blockchain in healthcare shall be able to exceed 500 Million USD by 2022 with a whopping expected CAGR of 70%.
It’s clear now that Blockchain is gonna expand a lot in the healthcare sector in the upcoming years but now, lets have a look at the reasons for it- i.e. what are the benefits that integration of blockchain in healthcare can provide-:
Benefits of integrating Blockchain in healthcare-:

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Blockchain can bring a total revolution in the healthcare sector while providing numerous advantages-:
1. Data Provenance and Integrity
2. Security
3. Supply Chain efficiency
4. Cost-effectiveness
5. Better handling of payment-claims
Lets discuss each of these in brief one-by-one-:
Data Provenance and Integrity
Medical agencies have to deal with tons of data related to PHI (Patient’s Health Information), health records, insurance claims and much more. Blockchain can keep all this data in one single-place and its’ encryption insures that data is unchangeable and can’t be removed too. Blockchain also provides the users a chance to verify the information using a proof generated while anchoring data to public blockchain.
Security
With the current healthcare organisations working through a single database, it’s prone to cyber-attacks which if not prevented, can put the health of a huge number of patients at risk. Blockchain’s encryption can allow for a large organization with multiple levels of access on a blockchain ledger which can increase security by many folds.
Supply Chain Efficiency

https://preview.redd.it/rqqfhgwajww41.jpg?width=512&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9d2ae50ec8dbf7f928e96fbb4bb83a9208bab078
Blockchain can have great benefits for the current medicine supply chain which spans from manufacturing centres to wholesalers to retailers and then finally to customers. Blockchain provides for effective drug checking at manufacturing level and also offers traceability of counterfeit drugs.
Cost-effectiveness
By removing intermediaries in the health-sector, blockchain allows the healthcare management to save a lot of bucks. It also saves a lot of money in insurance claims too. As per a report by BIS Research, Healthcare Blockchain could save industry $100B annually by 2025
Better Handling of Payment Claims

https://preview.redd.it/ykqre3rcjww41.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5c4d23d67fdbc94d86e8da84c3ee144e244e060e
Smart Contracts, which are powered by Blockchain allows providers and patients to enter information and data to be verified and the access of this is shared with health insurance companies. This allows for effective settlement of payment-claims and also prevents the huge losses due to insurance frauds
So, by now, we have seen the benefits the healthcare sector can reap with Blockchain. Now, lets have a look at a few common problems in this sector and how Blockchain can help in those-:
Problems and Blockchain-led solutions-:
Problem1 : Drug Counterfeit
This is one of the most serious problems in the pharmaceutical sector with as much as 10-30% drugs out of the total amount of drugs sold in the developing countries being fake. Having a huge market and being tough to trace due to their qualitative and quantitative similarity with normal drugs, these counterfeit drugs can be fatal for patients due to their side-effects or unnecessary treatment.
Blockchain Solution
Due to transactions on block-chain being transparent, immutable and time-stamped, it becomes relatively easier to track a product. Also, company’s access to the private drug blockchain is a proof of the authenticity of that company’s drug, hence keeping a check on fraudalent drug dealers.

https://preview.redd.it/cuxn0knejww41.png?width=972&format=png&auto=webp&s=81d3af2eadade363af367cc7180b042f9a305102
Problem2 : Fraud in Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are a research experiment where a group of patients volunteer to be tested in order to know the tolerance and effectiveness of a drug. Large chunk of data are involved in clinical trials making it difficult to track and manage. The frauds involve manipulating or hiding some data either intentionally or unintentionally.
Blockchain Solution

https://preview.redd.it/q8qinvqgjww41.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=a74293c5d7bf8e758fcdbb5238d7a96f7f465271
The immutability of blockchain makes it impossible to modify data, and through a unique code, the Blockchain network can also provide the proof of existence for a clinical trial, which may be incredibly helpful in prevention of frauds.
Problem3 – Patient Data Management-:
Patient isn’t allowed the complete access of his data due to the fears of it being modified or deleted with potentially harmful consequences. Also, there is lack of security when concerned with sharing data among medical fraternity.
Blockchain Solution
The blockchain allows for creation of a hash from each patient information along with a patient ID which allows the patient to access or share the data with third-parties like medicine dealers. The medical community can also work on the data once they are provided the access for it.
So, till now, we first saw the benefits of blockchain and the problems it can solve in the healthcare sector. Now, we shall have a look at the challenges it need to overcome before establishing it’s dominance here.
Challenges to Blockchain in healthcare
While the hype around blockchain is understandable given the numerous benefits it provides, but there do exists some challenges it need to overcome. Let’s have a brief look-:
1. Uncertainty in storage- As already discussed, health-industry deals with huge chunk of data, storing which demands large storage. But the storage capacity of Blockchain isn’t certain yet and hence, it paves a big challenges
2. Knowledge gap- Majority of healthcare organizations lack staff with sufficient knowledge for blockchain implementation and this increases the technical barriers
3. Infrastructure and cost- Blockchain would certainly cause a disruption in the medical sector but the shift would require a lot of infrastructural changes and system changes. Also, financial cost of this shift is high.
4. Data Ownership- The uncertainty surrounding the ownership of healthcare data and that who grants permissions for this data poses a big obstacle
5. Rules and Regulations- Blockchain usage in healthcare doesn’t have a specified set of rules and regulations as of now. Also, any rules shall have to comply with the HIPAA privacy regulations
Conclusion
It is so clear that the numerous advantages provided by blockchain makes it a no-brainer to imagine its successful dominance in the healthcare sector and the revolution it can bring. But at the same time, there do exist some obstacles which have to be overcomed for this shift.
However, as always, we shall be ready to embrace these challenges since a Blockchain led healthcare system is inevitable and we shall all be ready for this revolution!
Contact us to be on the forefront of innovations coming to disrupt the energy sector and embrace the upcoming industry shift.
This article is contributed by Akshay Akash. He is a part-time junior front-end web developer and an on-the-go content writer with an experience and specialization in social media and a noteworthy prowess on Twitter and Quora. He also love applying his analytical skills to solve modern-day business problems and is currently working on a project aimed at merging modern technologies in modern media to make it free from human intervention. He love sharing perspectives with people, so feel free to have a chat!. he is Chemical Engineering student in IIT (BHU) one of the prestigious Technical Institute in India and World.
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Building a secure and audit-able Coronavirus database using BlockBase on EOSIO How transactions are verified in Bitcoin Blockchain ... Introduction to Block.Co Bitcoin Q&A: Data integrity and validation of keys Blockchain - How To Verify A Bitcoin Transaction And Get ...

Bitcoin’s blockchain cryptographically links each block added to it, so that a modification of any one of the blocks will easily be caught. And while blockchain logs each transaction involving Bitcoins, it is easy for a relational database to log each SQL command that it receives from clients. Because it is easy to digitally sign data written to a relational database, it is also easy to get ... If I understand correctly, when a new block is received, the recipient needs to verify the following: the block hash - i.e. that the hash of the header, including prev. block hash, Merkle Root hash, time, target, and nonce is correct, and that its value is less than the target. the target - needs to equal the current (difficulty) target. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.. Visit Stack Exchange Integrity attribute is to allow the browser to check the file source to ensure that the code is never loaded if the source has been manipulated. Crossorigin attribute is present when a request is loaded using 'CORS' which is now a requirement of SRI checking when not loaded from the 'same-origin'. Transparency and Integrity Thanks to integrity and transparency, public verifiability is one of the most important features that distinguish blockchain technology from a traditional database. Integrity: Users can be sure that the data they retrieve are uncorrupted and unaltered from the moment it was generated.

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Building a secure and audit-able Coronavirus database using BlockBase on EOSIO

How transactions are verified in Bitcoin Blockchain - Longest chain rule explained Watch our earlier Blockchain videos Blockchain Simplified: https://www.you... Blockchain/Bitcoin for beginners 9: Bitcoin ... Using MD5/SHA256 Hashes to Verify File Integrity - Duration: 7:45 . odah 23,308 views. 7:45. Blockchain Basics Explained - Hashes with Mining and ... I was lucky enough to get the first sneak peek at the sandbox from BlockBase where Ricardo Schiller and Diogo Bulha walked me though creating a transparent and audit-able Coronavirus database ... How is SHA-256 used to verify data integrity in Bitcoin? What does it mean to sign a message? Is there a difference in the validation process of compressed versus uncompressed keys? More: https ... For more tips like these visit http://bodymindsuccess.com/bitcoin or subscribe to our channel

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